Nihongo - Let's Learn Grammar

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  • 公開済み: 21 8 2013
  • アップデートされたもの: 14 7 2015
  • 状況: 完了
This movella teaches you straightforward the grammar of Japanese. From 助詞 to 動詞, you will be able to get a complete and organised movella that includes all major particles and essential grammatical usages to make cool Japanese sentences! 行きましょうね!

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10. で • Performing Particle

This particle is very important. However, it is very flexible that you may see it more often than you'd expect.

 

 

This particle is used to make a noun help the verb do something. For example, you cannot write something without a pencil or pen; you need a leash to run a dog on a leash; and you need a voice to sing a song. These all accompany the action to be successfully executed.

 

鉛筆 【えん・ぴつ】= Pencil

自己紹介 【じ・こ・しょう・かい】= Self-introduction

書く 【か・く】= To write

男 【おとこ】= Man

筋肉 【きん・にく】= Muscle

勝負 【しょう・ぶ】= Competition

箸 【はし】= Chopsticks

食べる 【た・べる】= To eat

ラーメン = Ramen

 

• 自己紹介を鉛筆書きました。= Wrote a self-introduction (in/with a) pencil.

• 男は筋肉勝負します。= Men compete with muscle.

• ラーメンを食べました。= Ate ramen with chopsticks.

 

Notice how the English translation will usually fit a "With" or "In" in between the noun that is helping the verb. That is the English version of で, so that shouldn't be too hard to grasp. You may have also been taught that it can translate to "By means of" or "Via." That is true, but who really speaks that way in English, especially on a regular basis? 

 

However, let's take a look at an "unusual" sentence.

 

• レストランで食べます。= Eat at a restaurant.

 

Many people that I've taught Japanese to have always written this with the に after レストラン, paying no attention to the で particle. They often think that, because the restaurant is the target in which we eat, レストラン should be a location. In Japanese, it's very limited as to what is a target and what is a helping noun for the verb.

 

• レストランに食べす。= Eat in a restuarant.

 

Most of the time you will and should use で because a restaurant is helping you carry out the action of eating. However, if the context you are speaking in is, say, asking you where you want to eat, then you may use に. Often times you'd specify what kind of a restaurant, though.

 

Think in Japanese

Having this mindset is always hard to do, especially for English-pro-dominant speakers. You need to understand that Japanese builds on context and doesn't need to be so specific as English does. Therefore, always make sure you know what certain nouns do.

 

図書館 【と・しょ・かん】= Library

返す 【かえ・す】= To return

本 【ほん】= Book

読む 【よ・む】= To read

学校 【がっ・こう】= School

勉強する 【べん・きょう】= To study

 

 Using に Over で

If a place finishes a verb, use に.

• 図書館に本を返しました。= Returned a book at the library.

You have completed the action of returning the book.

 

 Using で Over に

If a place starts a verb, use で.

• 学校で勉強していました。= Was studying at school.

You cannot study at school without being at school first!

 

 

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